[4] Guru Gobind Singh declared that Khalsa does not need to continue this practice, because Bhaddar is not dharam, but a bharam (illusion). [79], After the Second Battle of Anandpur in 1704, the Guru and his remaining soldiers moved and stayed in different spots including hidden in places such as the Machhiwara jungle of southern Panjab. [83], Aurangzeb died in 1707, and immediately a succession struggle began between his sons who attacked each other. [76] They believed that the religious Guru tradition of Sikhs had been corrupted by him, through the creation of a military order willing to resist the Imperial army. One came forward, whom he took inside a tent. Guru Gobind Singh moulded the Sikh religion into its present form that we see today with the formation of the Khalsa in 1699 and completed the final layout of the perpetual Sikh Guru, the Guru Granth Sahib which some will say was his greatest act. [85], The Guru died of his wounds a few days later on 7 October 1708[87] His death fuelled a long and bitter war of the Sikhs with the Mughals. The family history of his wives, their date, and place, of birth and their parentage are known. In 1684, he wrote the Chandi di Var in Punjabi language – a legendary war between the good and the evil, where the good stands up against injustice and tyranny, as described in the ancient Sanskrit text Markandeya Purana. He indicted the Mughal Emperor and his commanders in spiritual terms, accused them of a lack of morality both in governance and in the conduct of war. The young Gobind Rai – to be known as Gobind Singh after 1699[7] – advised his father that no one was more worthy to lead and make a sacrifice than him. [39][40][41], Guru Gobind Singh is credited in the Sikh tradition with finalizing the Kartarpur Pothi (manuscript) of the Guru Granth Sahib – the primary scripture of Sikhism. [18][19], Gobind Singh was the only son of Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Sikh guru, and Mata Gujri. In 1670, his family returned to Punjab, and in March 1672 they moved to Chakk Nanaki in the Himalayan foothills of north India, called … [76] Dhavan writes that some Persian writers who wrote decades or a century after the death of Guru Gobind Singh evolved from relying entirely on court histories of the Mughals which disparage the Guru, to including stories from the Sikh gurbilas text that praise the Guru. [19], Guru Gobind Singh is also credited with the Dasam Granth. His youngest sons, aged 5 and 8, were tortured and then executed by burying them alive into a wall after they refused to convert to Islam, and Mata Gujri collapsed on hearing her grandsons' death, and died shortly after. He then administered this to the Panj Pyare, accompanied with recitations from the Adi Granth, thus founding the khande ka pahul (baptization ceremony) of a Khalsa – a warrior community. Guru Gobind Singh wed three times in all. In 1693, Aurangzeb was fighting the Hindu Marathas in the Deccan region of India, and he issued orders that Guru Gobind Singh and Sikhs should be prevented from gathering in Anandpur in large numbers. [36] Guru Gobind Singh concluded that the Masands system had become corrupt, he abolished them and introduced a more centralized system with the help of Khalsa that was under his direct supervision. Memorials have been erected commemorating their deaths. [29] He asked for another volunteer, and repeated the same process of returning from the tent without anyone and with a bloodied sword four more times. He stayed with relatives or trusted Sikhs such as the three grandsons of Rai Jodh, a devotee of Guru Har Gobind. Tobacco, eating 'halal' meat (a way of slaughtering in which the animal's throat is slit open and it is left to bleed before being slaughtered), fornication and adultery were forbidden. The grandparents of the tenth Guru were, the sixth Sikh Guru Guru Hargobind and Mata Nanaki. The tenth Guru was the only son of the father, ninth Sikh master, Guru Teg Bahadur and mother Mata Gujri. [18] Guru Gobind Singh also declared this text to be the eternal Guru for Sikhs. It is but lawful to take to the sword. [4], Guru Gobind Singh had deep respect for the Khalsa, and stated that there is no difference between the True Guru and the sangat (panth). The letter is spiritually rooted in Guru Gobind Singh's beliefs about justice and dignity without fear. [2] His father made the attempt, but was arrested then publicly beheaded in Delhi on 11 November 1675 under the orders of Aurangzeb for refusing to convert to Islam and the ongoing conflicts between Sikhism and the Islamic Empire. Guru Gobind Singh (December 22, 1666 in Patna, Bihar, India - October 7, 1708) was the tenth and last of the Ten human form Gurus of Sikhism. His tradition has survived into the modern times, with initiated Sikh referred to as Khalsa Sikh, while those who do not get baptized referred to as Sahajdhari Sikhs. [2][14], His father Guru Tegh Bahadur was petitioned by Kashmiri Pandits[21] in 1675 for protection from the fanatic persecution by Iftikar Khan, the Mughal governor of Kashmir under Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. He was married to Mata Jito and Mata Sundari. [6], According to Senapati's Sri Gur Sobha, an early 18th century writer, the fatal wounds of the Guru was one below his heart. [22][23] After this martyrdom, the young Gobind Rai was installed by the Sikhs as the tenth Sikh Guru on Vaisakhi on 29 March 1676. [citation needed] His two eldest sons, aged 13 and 17, were killed in the Battle of Chamkaur against the Mughal army. When all other means have failed, He became Guru on November 11, 1675 at the age of nine, following in the footsteps of his father Guru Teg Bahadur. Guru Gobind Singh's immediate family Guru Gobind Singh (December 22, 1666 in Patna, Bihar, India - October 7, 1708) was the tenth and last of the Ten human form Gurus of Sikhism. [2], Guru Gobind Singh had three wives:[3][25], The life example and leadership of Guru Gobind Singh have been of historical importance to the Sikhs. [44][45] The Dasam Granth includes hymns, mythological tales from Hindu texts,[16] a celebration of the feminine in the form of goddess Durga,[46] erotic fables,[16] an autobiography, secular stories from the Puranas and the Mahabharata, letters to others such as the Mughal emperor, as well as reverential discussion of warriors and theology. Research of historians which supports evidence that the gurus married multiple wives includes English-language authors: [4] However, the new code of conduct also led to internal disagreements between Sikhs in the 18th century, particularly between the Nanakpanthi and the Khalsa. [7], In 1699, the Guru requested the Sikhs to congregate at Anandpur on Vaisakhi (the annual spring harvest festival). [2] His birth name was Gobind Rai, and a shrine named Takht Sri Patna Harimandar Sahib marks the site of the house where he was born and spent the first four years of his life. [37][38], The Khalsa warrior community tradition started by Guru Gobind Singh has contributed to modern scholarly debate on pluralism within Sikhism. Guru Gobind Singh fought 13 battles against the Mughal Empire and the kings of Siwalik Hills. For the recipient of the Victoria Cross, see, Coin depicting Guru Gobind Singh from 1747 CE. Gobind Singh was the only son of Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Sikh guru, and Mata Gujri. [18] The final version did not accept the extraneous hymns in other versions, and included the compositions of his father Guru Tegh Bahadur. After the first five Khalsa had been baptized, the Guru asked the five to baptize him as a Khalsa. This made the Guru the sixth Khalsa, and his name changed from Guru Gobind Rai to Guru Gobind Singh. He was born in Patna on 22 December 1666, Bihar in the Sodhi Khatri family [20] while his father was visiting Bengal and Assam. [36] Additionally, prior to the Khalsa, the Sikh congregations across India had a system of Masands appointed by the Sikh Gurus. J Deol (2000), Sikh Religion, Culture and Ethnicity (Editors: AS Mandair, C Shackle, G Singh), Routledge. His father was the 9th Guru of Sikhs and was on a preaching tour in Assam at the time of Gobind Rai’s birth. The period following the execution of Guru Tegh Bahadur – the father of Guru Gobind Singh, was a period where the Mughal Empire under Aurangzeb was an increasingly hostile enemy of the Sikh people. [2] He stayed in Paonta, near the banks of river Yamuna, till 1685. The only son of the Victoria Cross, see, Coin depicting Guru Gobind Singh is also credited the. 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