[3] The use of this particle began to be an essential appearance of nobility. so du is "of the". American teacher of French here—I learned French from classes and books, not as my native language. A nobiliary particle is used in a surname or family name in many Western cultures to signal the nobility of a family. The difficulties come from the fact that “de” in French can be many different things, your teacher will certainly use words like “partitif” or “indefinite article’ etc…, well it is easier to say that “de, du, de la and des” are the translation of ‘some’ and ‘any’! From the 19th century on, it became customary for Portuguese titled nobility to socially indicate their title as a subsidiary surname: for instance, Diana Álvares Pereira de Melo, 11th Duchess of Cadaval who goes by Diana de Cadaval after her title. An adjective may change the article: J’ai acheté des pantalons: I bought some trousers J’ai acheté de nouveaux pantalons: I bought new trousers (this is the rule but not so important as many people in France say J’ai acheté des nouveaux pantalons) When the adjective (here nouveaux) is before the noun (pantalons) we use “de” instead of “des”. Animals or part of animals, so a partitive: des. A1 | A2 | B1 | B2 | C1    Find your level. So does one say J’ai peur de bruit. It is used whenever you talk about something that can be divided into smaller parts, such as bread or juice. The law does allow for one exception. The last "and" (e) substitutes all previous surnames' prepositions except the first one, and cannot ever be used without a previous preposition to justify it. Here are my tips and examples to avoid any confusion! I love candies but I don’t eat sugar In this sentence there is no articles in English, in French we need two of them: J’aime les bonbons mais je ne mange pas de sucre ! "de" isn't feminine or masculine by itself. [17] A person bearing a Scottish territorial designation is either a Feudal Baron, Chief or Chieftain or a Laird, the latter denoting "landowner", or is a descendant of one of the same. It is also significant that both "de" and "of" were used simply to show geographical origin in the names of people of all classes, so that in England and Wales neither word should be looked on as in themselves nobiliary. In French, de indicates a link between the land and a person—either landlord or peasant. All rights reserved. If it is justified, they can be used together ("von und zu"): the present ruler of Liechtenstein, for example, is Johannes Adam Ferdinand Alois Josef Maria Marko d'Aviano Pius von und zu Liechtenstein. The preposition de can be very difficult for French students, even at advanced levels. So, in fact and by convention, surnames with the non-noble use of the particle de are spelled as a single word (e.g., "Pierre Dupont"),[2] though many such conserved the de as a separate word. But, after the end of the Kingdom of France, the use of de has not invariably evidenced nobility, as shown in Valéry Giscard d'Estaing's grandfather's change of name in the early-twentieth century. Rien de neuf: nothing new Personne d’absent ? As in Spain, English and Welsh surnames composed of two names linked by a hyphen ("-") do not necessarily indicate nobility, e.g. Portuguese surnames do not indicate nobility, as usually the same surnames exist in noble and non-noble families. Help me understand the difference between "de" and "du" in French. It's a mandatory contraction of the two words. de + l' and à + l' won't change, just like de la and à la. Close. du, de la, de l’ and des can all be used to give information about the amount or quantity of a particular thing. [4] Even earlier in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries many middle-class families simply adopted the particle without being ennobled; Maximilien Robespierre's family, for example, used the particle for some generations.[5][6]. (Get it? The preposition de, and its different orthographic forms (do, dos, da and das), like in France, do not indicate nobility in the bearer. William Maitland of Lethington would be addressed as "Lethington" or "Maitland of Lethington".[18]. Is "de la" the feminine version of "du"? (here “des” is “de les”). Same thing for: I want other shoes: je veux d’autres chaussures. "Des", as far as I can tell, is used for multiples of items instead of "les" to say something like "I have some plates" instead of "I have the plates". Au : Je vais au travail = I am going to work (literally: to the work) The particle can also be du ('of the' in the masculine form), d' (employed, in accordance with the rules of orthography, when the nom de terre begins with a vowel; for example, Ferdinand d'Orléans), or des ('of the' in the plural). If you speak about something specific, we need the definite article: We are taking advantage of new laws: nous profitons de lois nouvelles. We are taking advantage of the new laws: nous profitons des lois nouvelles. In modern times, a nobiliary particle (as the term is widely understood on the Continent) is rarely used. It's better if you memorize them as contractions instead of each meaning something or being the feminine or masculine version of the other-- whenever you see "de" in a sentence plus a definite article, it will contract to something. They are often translated into English as some or any. Your support is entirely optional but tremendously appreciated. In Scotland, there is strictly no nobiliary particle, but the use of the word of as a territorial designation has a long history. Examples of nobility particle de without patronymic include the sixteenth-century first Marquis of Santa Cruz, Álvaro de Bazán, the conquistador Hernando de Soto, a common tradition in Spanish culture. J’ai peur du bruit que tu as fait. In some cases - if even not very frequent, for instance as a distinction of more split-ups of family lines - these more common particles could even have been supplemented with auf (i.e., residing at yet another place different from the one zu refers to and meaning [up]on in English): Von A-dynasty/place, at B-town, auf C-ville/location/residence. a poppy , Papaver rhoeas, that has bright red flowers and grows in cornfields . The names of the most ancient nobility, the Uradel, but also names of some old untitled nobility, often do not contain the particle von or zu, such as Grote, Knigge or Vincke. Examples are families like von Ahnen. "[13] The anglicisation to Trafford had probably occurred in the 15th century, when the Norman article "de", signifying that a family originated from a particular place, was generally dropped in England.

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